Aristotle described two types of political revolution:
1. Complete change from one constitution to another.
2. Modification of an existing constitution.
Revolutions have occurred throughout human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration, and motivating ideology. Their results have included major changes in culture, economy, and socio-political institutions.
Martin Luther brought revolution to the Christendom, hence the catholic church no more became the only church in those days.
My case study in this article is the American revolutionary war of independence, waged by the American colonies against Britain. This influenced political ideas and revolutions around the globe, as a fledgling, largely disconnected nation won its freedom from the greatest military force of its time. By the mid 1770s, relations between Americans and the British administration had become strained and acrimonious.
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The first shots of what would become the war for American independence were fired in April 1775. For some months before that clash at Lexington and Concord, patriots had been gathering arms and had been training to fight the British if that became necessary. General Thomas Gage, commander of British forces around Boston, had been cautious; he did not wish to provoke the Americans. In April, however, Gage received orders to arrest several patriot leaders, rumored to be around Lexington. Gage sent his troops out on the night of April 18, hoping to catch the colonists by surprise and thus to avoid bloodshed. When the British arrived in Lexington, however, colonial militia awaited them. A fire fight soon ensued. Even so, it was not obvious that this clash would lead to war. American opinion was split. Some wanted to declare independence immediately; others hoped for a quick reconciliation. The majority of Americans remained undecided but watching and waiting.
In June 1775, the Continental Congress created, on paper, a Continental Army and appointed George Washington as Commander. Washington's first task, when he arrived in Boston to take charge of the ragtag militia assembled there, was to create an army in fact. It was a daunting task with no end of problems: recruitment, retention, training and discipline, supply, and payment for soldiers' services. Nevertheless, Washington realized that keeping an army in the field was his single most important objective.
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During the first two years of the Revolutionary War, most of the fighting between the patriots and British took place in the north. At first, the British generally had their way because of their far superior sea power. Despite Washington's daring victories at Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey, in late 1776 and early 1777, the British still retained the initiative. Indeed, had British efforts been better coordinated, they probably could have put down the rebellion in 1777. But such was not to be. Patriot forces, commanded by General Horatio Gates, achieved a significant victory at Saratoga, New York, in October 1777. Within months, this victory induced France to sign treaties of alliance and commerce with the United States. In retrospect, French involvement was the turning point of the war, although that was not obvious at the time.
Between 1778 and 1781, British military operations focused on the south because the British assumed a large percentage of Southerners were loyalists who could help them subdue the patriots. The British were successful in most conventional battles fought in that region, especially in areas close to their points of supply on the Atlantic coast. Even so, American generals Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan turned to guerrilla and hit-and-run warfare that eventually stymied the British. By 1781, British General Lord Charles Cornwallis was ordered to march into Virginia to await resupply near Chesapeake Bay. The Americans and their French allies pounced on Cornwallis and forced his surrender.
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Yorktown was a signal victory for the patriots, but two years of sporadic warfare, continued military preparations, and diplomatic negotiations still lay ahead. The Americans and British signed a preliminary peace treaty on November 30, 1782; they signed the final treaty, known as the Peace of Paris, on September 10, 1783. The treaty was generally quite favorable to the United States in terms of national boundaries and other concessions. Even so, British violations of the agreement would become an almost constant source of irritation between the two nations far into the future.
There is much similarities between the american revolution to what is happening presently between Nigeria and Biafra, but on the Biafran side, much more efforts are required. I am maintaing that FREEDOM is taken, never given. Soldiering has never been strange to the scriptures. Today we have soldiers of the cross. Soldiers defend their territories.
The bible instructed us to learn from the Ants. This is an elaboration of this perfect command;
Ants reside in anthills. They run a unitary government. The king and queen live in a part of the anthill, there they function as the reproductive arm, the nymphs are carried and stored in another section for longevity, they are nurtured to maturity until they are allocated to various duties. The workers are responsible for hunting food and transporting them back to the anthill. They ensure that everyone is fed to satisfaction. Finally, there are the soldiers, who never leave their duty posts but protect their estate jealously from invasion and destruction.
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When Zerrubabel went to rebuild Jerusalem, he stationed men to fight off opposition.What have you done to achieve our release?Are you just claiming by words to be Biafran? Then, you must retrace your step now. Channel your professionalism, talent, strength and wealth into this fight for our FREEDOM.
FREEDOM belongs to all of us. Do not be left out. Gideon warred Midian with only 300 soldiers but today, opportunity still abound. Will you fight for Biafra's freedom? The choice is yours.
Written By Victoria O.C Agangan
Edited By Uche Nwosu
Published By Nwosu C.S
For Biafra Writers